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表題:diego 名前:diego 日時: 2016/09/25 14:00:50
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表題:ブランド財布コピー、ブランドコピーバッグ、スーパーコピー時計 名前:松藤 裕希 日時: 2016/09/25 10:07:01
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表題:新作最高品質コピー時計、スーパーコピー時計 名前:酒井貴和子 日時: 2016/09/25 10:06:48
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表題:時計,バッグ,財布,ルイヴィトンコピー,エルメスコピー 名前:天本健太朗 日時: 2016/09/25 10:06:28
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表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 07:10:21
In 1900 Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master's degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.[33] The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.[34]

Over the first half of the century the automatic master's degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor's degrees in the higher faculties as master's degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982,[35] and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.[36]

In 1983, the Engineering Council issued a "'Statement on enhanced and extended undergraduate engineering degree courses", proposing the establishment of a 4-year first degree (Master of Engineering).[37][38] These were up and running by the mid 1980s and were followed in the early 1990s by the MPhys for physicists and since then integrated master's degrees in other sciences such as MChem, MMath, MGeol, etc., and in some institutions general or specific MSci (Master in Science) and MArts (Master in Arts) degrees.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 07:07:47
The Master of Science (MSc) degree was finally introduced in Britain in 1878 at Durham,[27] followed by the new Victoria University in 1881.[28] At the Victoria University both the MA and MSc followed the lead of Durham's MA in requiring a further examination for those with an ordinary bachelor's degree but not for those with an honours degree.[29]

At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master's degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master's degrees that could be gained ether by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master's degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master's degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs "the most stupendous of academic frauds" and "bogus degrees".[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that "A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A." and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that "the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning" and that "it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons".[31][32]

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 07:05:44
.[19]

Probably the most important master's degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: "in course", first awarded in 1859, and "on examination", first awarded in 1862. The "in course" MS was last awarded in 1876.[19] In Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. When London introduced its Faulty of Sciences in 1858, the University was granted a new charter giving it the power "to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music",[20] but the degrees it awarded in science were the Bachelor of Science and the Doctor of Science.[21] The same two degrees, again omitting the master's, were awarded at Edinburgh, despite the MA being the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland.[22] In 1862, a Royal Commission suggested that Durham should award master's degrees in theology and science (interestingly with the suggested abbreviations MT and MS, contrary to later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),[23] but its recommendations were not enacted. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Science, along with the Bachelor of Natural Science, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and be awarded to students who took their degrees in the honours school of natural sciences.[24] In 1879 a statute to actually establish the faculty of Natural Sciences at Oxford was promulgated,[25] but in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree as a Master of Science was rejected along with a proposal to grant Masters of Natural Sciences a Master of Arts degree, in order to make them full members of the University.[26] This scheme would appear to have then been quietly dropped, with Oxford going on to award BAs and MAs in science.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 07:03:07
[10] By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.[11] When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, "the same as that in Europe".[12]

It was not until 1837 that separate examinations were reintroduced for the MA in England, at the newly established Durham University (even though, as in the ancient English universities, this was to confer full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination.[13][14][15] However, by the middle of the century the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham moving to awarding it automatically to those who gained honours in the BA in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following the other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as its first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858.[16] At the same time, new universities were being established around the then British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the Queen's University of Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.

In the US, the revival of master's degrees as an examined qualification began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859,[17] although the idea of a master's degree as an earned second degree was not well established until the 1870s, alongside the PhD as the terminal degree.[18] Sometimes it was possible to earn an MA either by examination or by seniority in the same institution, e.g. in Michigan the "in course" MA was introduced in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the "on examination" MA was introduced in 1859.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 07:01:11
[4] In Scotland the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master's degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style 3 years after the BA.[7] In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century,[8]although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that "In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination. In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter."[9]

The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master's degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master's degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination.The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.[

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:57:57
Historical development[edit]
The master's degree dates back to the origin of European universities, with a Papal bull of 1233 decreeing that anyone admitted to the mastership in the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely in any other university. The original meaning of the master's degree was thus that someone who had been admitted to the rank (degree) of master (i.e. teacher) in one university should be admitted to the same rank in other universities. This gradually became formalised as the licentia docendi (licence to teach). Originally, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it had become customary in the English universities to refer to the teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and those in the higher faculties as doctors.[2] Initially, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the study of the trivium and the Master of Arts (MA) for the study of the quadrivium.[3]

From late medieval times until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor's and master's degree in the lower (undergraduate) faculties and to have bachelor's and doctorates in the higher (postgraduate) faculties. In the United States, the first master's degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:53:32
A master's degree[fn 1] (from Latin magister) is a second-cycle academic degree awarded by universities upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.[1] A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:51:10
Chile
Commonly the Chilean universities have used "Magíster" for a master degree.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:47:31
Quebec
In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, however, regarding admission to a master's program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor's degree in three years instead of four. Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of studies. Following the obtention of their bachelor's degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to eventually obtain a master's degree.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:44:01
Canada
In Canada, Master of Science (MSc) degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture. Master's programs typically take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required. Admission to a master's program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor's degree. Some universities require a master's degree in order to progress to a doctoral program (PhD).

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:41:19
Bangladesh
In Bangladesh, all universities, including Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University and Rajshahi University, have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science, any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline.....

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:36:17
Australia
Australian universities commonly have coursework or research based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. Research based master's degrees are usually accompanied by an extensive thesis before completion.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:34:00
Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Perú and Uruguay[edit]
In Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Colombia, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration.[1] The admission to a Master's program (Spanish: Maestría; Portuguese: Mestrado) requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor's degree or a Licentiate's degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees qualify for a doctorate program.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:30:20
A Master of Science degree (Latin: Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, MSc, MSci, ScM or SciM with or without punctuation) is a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Arts degree. The Master of Science degree is typically granted for studies in sciences, engineering, and medicine, and is usually for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the humanities and social sciences. While it ultimately depends upon the specific program, individuals who pursue a Master of Science degree typically require a thesis.

表題:boiz 名前:vine 日時: 2016/09/25 06:27:35
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表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:26:37
Students need more than 85% marks in prerequisite courses in order to get enrolled for the aptitude test for these degree programs. They then have to pass the test with 85% to 90% marks, which is high compared with all the other bachelor's degree programs.[1] The World Health Organization has granted international recognition to certain widely offered conventional medical degrees. Degrees recognized internationally by the AVICENNA Directory for medicine/International Medical Education Directory.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:23:33
A study conducted in 2011 that involved more than 1000 medical schools throughout the world indicated on average, 64 university exams, 130 series exams, and 174 assignments are completed over the course of 5.5 years.

表題:d 名前:d 日時: 2016/09/25 06:21:42
A medical degree is a vocational, or even technical, degree awarded for studies in fields associated with medicine and surgery.

表題:kerke 名前:kerke 日時: 2016/09/25 06:18:22
its kerke

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its kerke

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